antique book

Book Conservation: A 19th Century Carte de Visite Photograph Album

19th century carte de visite photograph album - conservation treatment

At Book and Paper Conservation Services the variety of objects we treat is broad, but they all have one thing in common - the owners or stewards of the objects have deemed them important enough to be preserved. We often receive objects of fascinating historical significance, and learning about the provenance of the item is one of the thrills of the job for an art conservator. 

An intriguing item came through our studio recently - a 19th century carte de visit photo album with an interesting theme and provenance. The album is from the collection of The Bishop Farrell Library & Archives at the Diocese of Hamilton, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

The Bishop Crinnon carte de visite photograph album, during conservation treatment.

The Bishop Crinnon carte de visite photograph album, during conservation treatment.

History & Context

Although it was most recently part of the library of Bishop Ryan, the album originally belonged to Bishop Crinnon, who was the 2nd Bishop of the Diocese of Hamilton from 1874 - 1882. An inscription on the front free end paper indicates it was a gift presented to Crinnon in London, Ontario, in September 1864, when he was a dean of the Diocese of London. It was gifted by Fr. Joseph A. Kelly, a Dominican Friar serving at the time as the prior of St. Peter’s Church in London. Crinnon obviously brought the album with him when he transferred to Hamilton, where it eventually joined the collection of the Diocese.

The Bishop Crinnon carte de visite album before conservation treatment.

The Bishop Crinnon carte de visite album before conservation treatment.

The album contains 89 cartes de visite displayed in specially made pages, inserted through slots in the bottom of two stiff sheets of cardboard and visible through die cut portrait openings. A large number of the photographs depict ecclesiastical figures, some identifiable and some not. Several of the cards have the sitter's name included, either printed on the card or inscribed by hand. It is an intriguing portrait collection of clergy from the early 19th century.

Bishop Crinnon carte de visite album, showing a spread of pages featuring portraits of clergy.

Bishop Crinnon carte de visite album, showing a spread of pages featuring portraits of clergy.

Cartes des Visite

The album is an example of a popular collecting trend of the second half of the 19th century, but with an important twist of theme and local significance. The carte des visite, a photograph mounted on a piece of card the size of a formal visiting card, was a common way to immortalize both celebrities and ordinary people, and they were produced by photographic studios around the world. Sitters would have cards produced for friends and family, and purchase or trade images of important personalities including royalty, politicians and men of arts and letters. 

Carte de visite from the Bishop Crinnon Album of Rev. Edward Gordon, first Vicar General for the Diocese of Hamilton

Carte de visite from the Bishop Crinnon Album of Rev. Edward Gordon, first Vicar General for the Diocese of Hamilton

Verso of carte de visite, with inscription in graphite and logo of the Notman Studio, Montreal, Canada.

Verso of carte de visite, with inscription in graphite and logo of the Notman Studio, Montreal, Canada.

In the case of this album, the collector has compiled a group of photographs featuring ecclesiastical figures, along with some other notable heros of the day. The portraits may have been commercially distributed - much the way postcards are bought in souvenir shops today - or may have been gifts from personal acquaintances of the collector, especially if he was involved in the Roman Catholic community. Many have logos of photography studios in Canada printed on the verso, including ones from London, Hamilton and Toronto. There is at least one from the well-known Notman Studio in Montreal. The album is rich with historical context and provides an interesting opportunity for a study of Roman Catholic clergy in Canada in the late 19th century; the Archives of the Diocese of Hamilton are currently exploring the album's history. 

Carte de visite - Canadian photography studio logo on verso
Carte de visite - Canadian photography studio logo on verso
Carte de visite - Canadian photography studio logo on verso
Page 6 - Photo 2 - Verso.JPG

Conservation Treatment

The album arrived in our studio in rough condition. The main issue was damage to the binding, caused by years of handling of the inherently delicate materials; there was also a fine layer of grime on all of the materials, dulling the vibrancy of the pages and photographs.

Facing paper lifting from a page with the weight of the album.

Facing paper lifting from a page with the weight of the album.

Delicate cloth lining has broken at joint of the final page. 

Delicate cloth lining has broken at joint of the final page. 

Photograph albums were manufactured in a variety formats in the 19th century, and a careful study was made of the mechanics of this particular album in order to understand the structure and to design an appropriate repair solution. The fabric lining attaching the thick card pages together had torn at the joint of the final page, a location which received a lot of strain whenever the album was accessed. As well, the weight and motion of the pages had caused delamination of the facing paper at several locations throughout the album. Repairs needed to be sympathetic to the original binding, while providing strength and stability, and still maintaining the mechanical action originally intended. 

New endbands were applied, in a style that matched the fragments of the originals.

New endbands were applied, in a style that matched the fragments of the originals.

Japanese tissue adhered with wheat starch paste was used to line the spine and repair the joint, the spine was strengthened with a new card stiffener, and new endbands were applied, in a style matching the remnants of the original materials. The binding and pages were surface cleaned to remove the grime, and each photograph was carefully removed from its slot, cleaned, documented on both recto and verso, and replaced. 

Each photograph was carefully cleaned, on both recto and verso, before being documented and replaced in the album.

Each photograph was carefully cleaned, on both recto and verso, before being documented and replaced in the album.

The binding was cleaned to remove surface grime. 

The binding was cleaned to remove surface grime. 

Before and after surface cleaning of the pages and gilding around the edge of the album.

Before and after surface cleaning of the pages and gilding around the edge of the album.

The end result allows the album to be opened, carefully and with proper support, so that the cartes des visite can be viewed by researchers at the archives. The repairs have restored the original function of the album, and the cleaning has rejuvenated the portraits. Preservation of the photograph album will allow it to remain in the best possible condition for future study and appreciation, and we are very pleased to have worked with the Bishop Farrell Library & Archives at the Diocese of Hamilton to preserve this interesting artifact. 

After conservation treatment, the Bishop Crinnon carte de visite photograph album is clean and stable. 

After conservation treatment, the Bishop Crinnon carte de visite photograph album is clean and stable. 

If you are interested in conservation for archival materials in your own collection, don't hesitate to get in touch with us. We provide conservation and restoration for documents, photographs and rare books, and we'll work with you to devise a preservation strategy to meet the needs of your object. Check out our portfolio of treatments and contact information below.

Book Conservation: Clamshell Boxes for Rare Books

Decorative clamshell box custom made to fit a rare book.

Decorative clamshell box custom made to fit a rare book.

Conservation goes hand in hand with preservation - there is no point in putting in time and effort to conserve rare materials without also taking steps to ensure their preservation going forward. In many cases, preservation means ensuring that the object will be protected with proper storage and environment in the future, so that further deterioration or damage occurs as little as possible. 

For rare books, one option is to have a protective clamshell box custom made to fit the volume.

1657 volume inside custom clamshell box.

1657 volume inside custom clamshell box.

This 1657 British law book recently came through our studio for treatment. The conservation procedures were minimal, involving a few repairs to the binding and preliminary pages; however, the client opted to have a custom clamshell box made as well. 

Repairs to leather corners.

Repairs to leather corners.

Surface cleaning the title page.

Surface cleaning the title page.

A clamshell box is a protective enclosure that can be custom made to fit any volume. The box opens like a book, with a tray on the bottom to hold the volume, and one on the top to cover it; the cover has a drop spine allowing the box to lay flat when open. When closed and placed on a shelf, it can look like a finely bound book itself, and can be fitted with a label on the spine to identify the volume inside. 

Clamshell box for rare book

 

 

Clamshell boxes serve to protect rare volumes from dust and light exposure, and to mitigate changes in temperature and relative humidity, all factors that can cause deterioration to the paper and leather of antiquarian books.

 

This particular clamshell also functioned as a presentation box, as the book was intended as a gift on a special occasion for the recipient. The label on the front cover commemorates the occasion and the rich red cloth and traditional marbled paper inside provide a luxurious accent to the volume, at the same time as protecting it.

The book fits snugly inside the box, with no room to slide or rub.

The book fits snugly inside the box, with no room to slide or rub.

While ready-made drop-spine solander boxes can be purchased from archival supply companies in a selection of standard sizes, the beauty of a custom clamshell box is that it is made to perfectly fit the volume it holds. Antiquarian books often measure in odd dimensions and a custom box will fit the book snugly, preventing it from sliding around inside, which could cause damage to the binding.

Construction of a custom clamshell box must be very precise in order to fit the volume snugly.

Construction of a custom clamshell box must be very precise in order to fit the volume snugly.

Rare book libraries and special collections often construct custom boxes to protect their most valuable volumes, and the boxes can be made decorative, as in the example above, or more plainly in a conservation style box, as those shown below. 

A conservation clamshell with plainer materials protects the book from dust and light.

A conservation clamshell with plainer materials protects the book from dust and light.

Conservation clamshell box

If you have rare books that you want to protect and preserve, consider having custom clamshell boxes made to house them. Decorative and plain styles are available in a variety of colours and materials, and presentation boxes make a great accent for gifts or special occasions. Get in touch with us today to discuss your needs, or view our rare books conservation gallery to learn more about book conservation projects by our studio.

Conservation of an Antique Keepsake Album

Conservation Treatment of an Antique Keepsake Album

Family heirlooms can be works of art in their own right; this charming antique album is a perfect example of an item with great sentimental significance to a family, which also carries interesting artistic merit. The album recently came to Book and Paper Conservation Services for repair and preservation. 

The 19th century album has been personalized with the owner's initials in the bottom right corner.

The 19th century album has been personalized with the owner's initials in the bottom right corner.

The album, c. 1905, had been created by an ancestor of the current owner, who was an art student in Edinburgh, Scotland at the time. An inscription on the first page dedicates the album to the girl's sister. Albums like this were popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, manufactured as blank books and intended to be filled with autographs, sketches or collages by the owner and their friends and acquaintances. 

A charming collaged page shows a tribute to Scottish bard Robbie Burns.

A charming collaged page shows a tribute to Scottish bard Robbie Burns.

Portrait of an artist, by a friend of the book's owner.

Portrait of an artist, by a friend of the book's owner.

The owner of this book had a wide circle of artistic friends, and many of the pages feature skilled drawings by known artists, as well as personal notes and images of Scottish landmarks.

The entries range over a decade or so, and are executed in a variety of media, including pen and ink, watercolour, oil paint, and collage. Some pages have had tissue tipped in between to protect the drawings, but most of them are open and artworks alternate with blank pages interspersed. 

The binding of the album presents damage - the leather is cracked and the interior of the padded front cover is exposed. 

The binding of the album presents damage - the leather is cracked and the interior of the padded front cover is exposed. 

An old repair tape has yellowed and become brittle. 

An old repair tape has yellowed and become brittle. 

The album was generally in good condition, but presented some damage to both the binding and text block. It is not uncommon for delicate materials used in the early 20th century to suffer wear and tear after over 100 years, even with gentle handling; however, if not addressed the damages will escalate the more the album is handled and viewed. 

Old repair tape being removed.

Old repair tape being removed.

Conservation treatment involved several steps. Damage to the front cover of the binding was repaired using Japanese tissue toned to match the original leather colour. An old strip of repair tape on a significant page in the album had become yellowed and brittle, and was removed so as not to cause further staining to the page. A new repair of Japanese tissue was applied in its place. A split in the text block was strengthened with a strip of Japanese paper as well. 

Repair to headcap of the album's leather binding.

Repair to headcap of the album's leather binding.

Interleaving the pages with acid-free tissue.

Interleaving the pages with acid-free tissue.

Unstable media used in a number of the drawings, including both oil paint and iron-gall ink, had caused "burning" to the paper, some of which transferred to the verso and opposite pages in the book; some graphite drawings had also transferred loose media to the page opposite. The solution, in order to arrest further deterioration, was to interleave the pages with acid-free tissue and sheets of mylar, where necessary. 

The pages are interleaved with acid-free tissue and mylar where necessary.

The pages are interleaved with acid-free tissue and mylar where necessary.

Conservation treatment at our studio has repaired the damages to the album, stabilizing it against future degradation and allowing it to be handled and viewed safely. The owners plan to digitize each page and make reproduction copies so that the original will not need to be viewed excessively, allowing all the family members to keep a copy of this wonderful heirloom.

The album after conservation treatment.

The album after conservation treatment.

For more information on the work we do, and to see examples of other treatments, please browse our portfolio sections for rare books and archival materials! Get in touch today if you have a treasured object you are interested in having preserved.